Large-scale segregation of tourists and wild reindeer in three Norwegian national parks Management implications

Highlights ï we attempt to discover socio-ecological answers for conflicts among traveller activities and wild reindeer population. ï we identify a big-scale human beings/reindeer segregation notion at some stage in the traveller season. ï we advocate control authorities to adopt push-pull techniques for sustainable tourism and wild reindeer conservation. Summary

the challenge to harmonize nature-based tourism with species conservation is critical both from an monetary, cultural and ecological angle. One technique for information this interaction is to examine the spatiotemporal overlap between tourism sports and the focal speciesí space use, with the cause to pick out regions, durations, and conditions wherein tourism exerts the very best bad effect. Here, we integrate gps data from 66 wild reindeer with on-site surveys of tourist (n?=?13434 respondents at 66 locations) and trail use counters (n?=?ninety nine web sites) in three norwegian national parks. Our findings highlight a huge-scale segregation all through the summer season, as wild reindeer circulate to regions much less at risk of disturbance by way of human beings. Based totally on those findings, we discuss a control model to segregate travelers from wild reindeer in space and/or time during summer season with the intention of long-term sustainable coexistence.